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A diversion was created by Mbopa, and Dingane and Mhlangana struck the fatal blows. Shaka's corpse was dumped by his assassins in an empty grain pit, which was then filled with stones and mud.
The exact location is unknown. A monument was built at one alleged site. Shaka's half-brother Dingane assumed power and embarked on an extensive purge of pro-Shaka elements and chieftains, running over several years, in order to secure his position.
The initial problem Dingane faced was maintaining the loyalty of the Zulu fighting regiments, or amabutho. He addressed this by allowing them to marry and set up homesteads which was forbidden during Shaka's rule and they also received cattle from Dingane.
Loyalty was also maintained through fear, as anyone who was suspected of rivaling Dingane was killed.
He set up his main residence at Mmungungundlovo and established his authority over the Zulu kingdom. Some older histories have doubted the military and social innovations customarily attributed to Shaka, denying them outright, or attributing them variously to European influences.
Shaka is often said to have been dissatisfied with the long throwing assegai , and is credited with having introduced a new variant of the weapon: the iklwa , a short stabbing spear with a long, broad, and indeed sword-like, spearhead.
Though Shaka probably did not invent the iklwa , according to Zulu scholar John Laband, the leader did insist that his warriors train with the weapon, which gave them a "terrifying advantage over opponents who clung to the traditional practice of throwing their spears and avoiding hand-to-hand conflict.
It is also supposed that Shaka introduced a larger, heavier version of the Nguni shield. Furthermore, it is believed that he taught his warriors how to use the shield's left side to hook the enemy's shield to the right, exposing the enemy's ribs for a fatal spear stab.
In Shaka's time, these cowhide shields were supplied by the king, and they remained the king's property.
Some had black shields, others used white shields with black spots, and some had white shields with brown spots, while others used pure brown or white shields.
The story that sandals were discarded to toughen the feet of Zulu warriors has been noted in various military accounts such as The Washing of the Spears, Like Lions They Fought, and Anatomy of the Zulu Army.
Implementation was typically blunt. Those who objected to going without sandals were simply killed. Historian John Laband dismisses these stories as myth, writing: "What are we to make, then, of [European trader Henry Francis] Fynn's statement that once the Zulu army reached hard and stony ground in , Shaka ordered sandals of ox-hide to be made for himself?
They spent two whole days recuperating in one instance, and on another they rested for a day and two nights before pursuing their enemy.
Boys and girls aged six and over joined Shaka's force as apprentice warriors udibi and served as carriers of rations , supplies like cooking pots and sleeping mats, and extra weapons until they joined the main ranks.
It is sometimes held that such support was used more for very light forces designed to extract tribute in cattle and slaves from neighbouring groups.
Nevertheless, the concept of "light" forces is questionable. The fast-moving Zulu raiding party, or "ibutho lempi," on a mission invariably travelled light, driving cattle as provisions on the hoof, and were not weighed down with heavy weapons and supply packs.
Age-grade groupings of various sorts were common in the Bantu culture of the day, and indeed are still important in much of Africa.
Age grades were responsible for a variety of activities, from guarding the camp, to cattle herding, to certain rituals and ceremonies. Shaka organised various grades into regiments , and quartered them in special military kraals, with regiments having their own distinctive names and insignia.
The regimental system clearly built on existing tribal cultural elements that could be adapted and shaped to fit an expansionist agenda.
Most historians [ who? The expanding Zulu power inevitably clashed with European hegemony in the decades after Shaka's death.
In fact, European travellers to Shaka's kingdom demonstrated advanced technology such as firearms and writing, but the Zulu monarch was less than convinced.
There was no need to record messages, he held, since his messengers stood under penalty of death should they bear inaccurate tidings. As for firearms, Shaka acknowledged their utility as missile weapons after seeing muzzle-loaders demonstrated, but he argued that in the time a gunman took to reload, he would be swamped by charging spear-wielding warriors.
The first major clash after Shaka's death took place under his successor Dingane, against expanding European Voortrekkers from the Cape.
Initial Zulu success rested on fast-moving surprise attacks and ambushes, but the Voortrekkers recovered and dealt the Zulu a severe defeat from their fortified wagon laager at the Battle of Blood River.
The second major clash was against the British during Once again, most Zulu successes rested on their mobility, ability to screen their forces and to close when their opponents were unfavourably deployed.
Their major victory at the Battle of Isandlwana is well known, but they also forced back a British column at the Battle of Hlobane mountain, by deploying fast-moving regiments over a wide area of rugged ravines and gullies, and attacking the British who were forced into a rapid disorderly fighting retreat, back to the town of Kambula.
A number of historians [ who? A number of writers focus on Shaka's military innovations such as the iklwa — the Zulu thrusting spear, and the "buffalo horns" formation.
This combination has been compared to the standardisation implemented by the reorganised Roman legions under Marius.
Much controversy still surrounds the character, methods and activities of the Zulu king. From a military standpoint, historian John Keegan notes exaggerations and myths that surround Shaka, but nevertheless maintains:.
Fanciful commentators called him Shaka, the Black Napoleon, and allowing for different societies and customs, the comparison is apt.
Shaka is without doubt the greatest commander to have come out of Africa. Some scholars [ who? They also argue that Shaka's line was relatively short-lived and receives undue attention, compared to other, longer established lines and rulers in the region.
It seems much more likely that Shaka, seeking to build the power of a previously insignificant chiefdom, drew on an existing heritage of statecraft known to his immediate neighbors.
Soga implied as much when he used genealogical evidence to argue that the Zulu were an upstart group inferior in dignity and distinction to established chiefdoms in their region, for example, the Hlubi, Ndwandwe, and Dlamini lines.
Bryant arrived at similar conclusions. The Zulu line — "a royal house of doubtful pedigree" — was very short in comparison to the Langene, Ndwandwe, Swazi, and Hlubi lines.
Using his standard formula of eighteen years per reign, Bryant calculated that the Swazi, Ndwandwe, and Hlubi lines could be traced back to the beginning of the fifteenth century, while the eponymous chief Zulu had died at the beginning of the eighteenth century.
Shaka's triumphs did not succeed in obliterating or diminishing the memories of his better-born rivals. The hypothesis that several states of a new kind arose about the same time does not take account of the contrast between the short line of Shaka and the long pedigrees of his most important opponents — especially the coalition grouped around his deadly enemy Zwide d.
The founders of the states which Omer-Cooper called "Zulu-type states," including the Ndebele, the Gasa, the Ngoni, and the Swazi had all been closely associated with Zwide.
Instead of hypothesizing that they all chose to imitate Shaka, it is easier to imagine that he modeled his state on theirs.
And as they stemmed from ancient families it is entirely possible that states of that type existed in a more remote past.
Soga and Bryant related each of them to a larger grouping they called Mho. Scholarship in recent years has revised views of the sources on Shaka's reign.
The earliest are two eyewitness accounts written by European adventurer-traders who met Shaka during the last four years of his reign.
Nathaniel Isaacs published his Travels and Adventures in Eastern Africa in , creating a picture of Shaka as a degenerate and pathological monster, which survives in modified forms to this day.
Isaacs was aided in this by Henry Francis Fynn , whose diary actually a rewritten collage of various papers was edited by James Stuart only in Their accounts may be balanced by the rich resource of oral histories collected around by the same James Stuart, now published in six volumes as The James Stuart Archive.
Stuart's early 20th century work was continued by D. Malcolm in These and other sources such as A. Bryant gives us a more Zulu-centred picture.
Most popular accounts are based on E. Ritter's novel Shaka Zulu , a potboiling romance that was re-edited into something more closely resembling a history.
Various modern historians writing on Shaka and the Zulu point to the uncertain nature of Fynn and Isaac's accounts of Shaka's reign. A standard general reference work in the field is Donald Morris's "The Washing of The Spears", which notes that the sources, as a whole, for this historical era are not the best.
Morris nevertheless references a large number of sources, including Stuart, and A. Bryant's extensive but uneven "Olden Times in Zululand and Natal", which is based on four decades of exhaustive interviews of tribal sources.
After sifting through these sources and noting their strengths and weaknesses, Morris generally credits Shaka with a large number of military and social innovations, and this is the general consensus in the field.
A study by historian Carolyn Hamilton summarizes much of the scholarship on Shaka towards the dawn of the 21st century in areas ranging from ideology, politics and culture, to the use of his name and image in a popular South African theme park, Shakaland.
It argues that in many ways, the image of Shaka has been "invented" in the modern era according to whatever agenda persons hold. This "imagining of Shaka" it is held, should be balanced by a sober view of the historical record, and allow greater scope for the contributions of indigenous African discourse.
Military historians of the Zulu War must also be considered for their description of Zulu fighting methods and tactics, including authors like Ian Knight and Robert Edgerton.
General histories of Southern Africa are also valuable including Noel Mostert's "Frontiers" and a detailed account of the results from the Zulu expansion, J.
The increased military efficiency led to more and more clans being incorporated into Shaka's Zulu empire, while other tribes moved away to be out of range of Shaka's impis.
The ripple effect caused by these mass migrations would become known though only in the twentieth century as the Mfecane annihilation.
Shaka's army set out on a massive programme of expansion, killing or enslaving those who resisted in the territories he conquered.
His impis warrior regiments were rigorously disciplined: failure in battle meant death. At the time of his death, Shaka ruled over , people and could muster more than 50, warriors.
His year-long kingship resulted in a massive number of deaths, mostly due to the disruptions the Zulu caused in neighbouring tribes, although the exact death toll is a matter of scholarly dispute.
The Mfecane produced Mzilikazi of the Khumalo, a general of Shaka's. He fled Shaka's employ, and in turn conquered an empire in Zimbabwe , after clashing with European groups like the Boers.
The settling of Mzilikazi's people, the AmaNdebele or Matabele, in the south of Zimbabwe with the concomitant driving of the AmaShona into the north caused a tribal conflict that still resonates today.
Other notable figures to arise from the Mfecane include Soshangane , who expanded from the Zulu area into what is now Mozambique.
The theory of the Mfecane holds that the aggressive expansion of Shaka's armies caused a brutal chain reaction across the southern areas of the continent, as dispossessed tribe after tribe turned on their neighbours in a deadly cycle of fight and conquest.
Some scholars contend that this theory must be treated with caution as it generally neglects several other factors such as the impact of European encroachment, slave trading and expansion in that area of Southern Africa around the same time.
These numbers are, however, controversial. According to Julian Cobbing , the development of the view that Shaka was the monster responsible for the devastation is based on the need of apartheid era historians to justify the apartheid regime's racist policies.
Confirmation of such accounts can also be seen in modern archaeology of the village of Lepalong, an entire settlement built underground to shelter remnants of the Kwena people from —36 against the tide of disruption that engulfed the region during Shakan times.
William Rubinstein wrote that "Western guilt over colonialism, have also accounted for much of this distortion of what pre-literate societies actually were like, as does the wish to avoid anything which smacks of racism, even when this means distorting the actual and often appalling facts of life in many pre-literate societies".
One element in Shaka's destruction was to create a vast artificial desert around his domain An area miles to the north of the center of the state, miles to the west, and miles to the south was ravaged and depopulated Wylie expressed skepticism of the portrayal of Shaka as a pathological monster destroying everything within reach.
They argue that attempts to distort his life and image have been systematic—beginning with the first European visitors to his kingdom. One Nathaniel Isaacs wrote to Henry Fynn, a white adventurer, trader and sometime local chieftain:.
Fynn complies, and Wylie notes that he had an additional motive to distort Shaka's image—he applied for a huge grant of land—an area allegedly depopulated by Shaka's savagery.
Michal Lesniewski has criticised Wylie for some [ which? Though much remains unknown about Shaka's personal appearance, sources tend to agree he had a strong, muscular body and was not fat.
Shaka's enemies described him as ugly in some respects. He had a big nose, according to Baleka of the Qwabe, as told by her father. Her father also told Baleka that Shaka spoke as though "his tongue were too big for his mouth.
There is an anecdote that Shaka joked with one of his friends, Magaye, that he could not kill Magaye because he would be laughed at.
Supposedly if he killed Magaye, it would appear to be out of jealousy because Magaye was so handsome and "Shaka himself was ugly, with a protruding forehead".
The figure of Shaka still sparks interest among not only the contemporary Zulu but many worldwide who have encountered the tribe and its history.
The current tendency appears to be to lionise him; popular film and other media have certainly contributed to his appeal.
Certain aspects of traditional Zulu culture still revere the dead monarch, as the typical praise song below attests. The praise song is one of the most widely used poetic forms in Africa, applying not only to spirits but to men, animals, plants and even towns.
He is Shaka the unshakeable, Thunderer-while-sitting, son of Menzi He is the bird that preys on other birds, The battle-axe that excels over other battle-axes in sharpness, He is the long-strided pursuer, son of Ndaba, Who pursued the sun and the moon.
He is the great hubbub like the rocks of Nkandla Where elephants take shelter When the heavens frown Traditional Zulu praise song, English translation by Ezekiel Mphahlele.
Other Zulu sources are sometimes critical of Shaka, and numerous negative images abound in Zulu oral history.
When Shaka's mother Nandi died for example, the monarch ordered a massive outpouring of grief including mass executions, forbidding the planting of crops or the use of milk, and the killing of all pregnant women and their husbands.
Oral sources record that in this period of devastation, a singular Zulu, a man named Gala , eventually stood up to Shaka and objected to these measures, pointing out that Nandi was not the first person to die in Zululand.
Taken aback by such candid talk, the Zulu king is supposed to have called off the destructive edicts, rewarding the blunt teller-of-truths with a gift of cattle.
The figure of Shaka thus remains an ambiguous one in African oral tradition, defying simplistic depictions of the Zulu king as a heroic, protean nation builder on one hand, or a depraved monster on the other.
This ambiguity continues to lend the image of Shaka its continued power and influence, almost two centuries after his death.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Leader of the Zulu Kingdom from to For other uses, see Shaka disambiguation.
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Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. I just wanna hold your hand, oh Feel it in the sunrise Even in the nighttime If I was around more Where would you be now?
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